The study of how individuals learn, including teaching techniques, instructional processes, and individual variations in learning, is known as educational psychology. It investigates the cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and social factors on learning. Educational psychologists utilize their knowledge of how individuals learn to create instructional techniques and assist students in succeeding in school.
This discipline of psychology focuses on the early childhood and adolescent learning processes. However, it also investigates the social, emotional, and cognitive processes involved in learning across the lifetime.
Educational psychology or Education psychology encompasses several areas, including developmental psychology, behavioral psychology, and cognitive psychology. Behavioral, developmental, cognitive, constructivist, and experiential views are among the approaches to educational psychology.
Perspectives in Educational Psychology
When considering an issue, researchers in educational psychology, like those in other fields of psychology, prefer to use diverse approaches. These viewpoints concentrate on particular aspects that impact learning, such as learned behaviors, cognition, experiences, and so on.
The Behavioral Perspective
According to this viewpoint, all behaviors are learnt through conditioning. Psychologists who hold this viewpoint depend heavily on operant conditioning concepts to explain how learning occurs.
Teachers, for example, might reward pupils’ learning by giving them tokens that can be swapped for desirable objects such as sweets or toys. The behavioral perspective holds that pupils will learn when they are rewarded for “good” conduct and penalized for “poor” behavior.
While such approaches can be beneficial in some situations, the behavioral approach has been criticized for neglecting to take into consideration attitudes, emotions, and intrinsic incentives for learning.
The Developmental Perspective
This viewpoint focuses on how children learn new abilities and information as they grow. One major developmental theory that examines how children grow cognitively is Jean Piaget’s phases of cognitive development.
Educational psychologists can better grasp what children are capable of at each stage of development by knowing how children think at different stages of development. This can assist instructors in developing educational techniques and resources for certain age groups.
The Cognitive Point of View
The cognitive method has grown in popularity, owing to its consideration of how components such as memories, beliefs, emotions, and motives contribute to the learning process.
This theory supports the notion that people learn as a consequence of their own drive, rather than extrinsic rewards.
Cognitive educational psychologists are interested in researching how children become motivated to learn, how they retain what they learn, and how they solve problems, among other things.
The Constructivist Approach
This viewpoint is concerned with how we actively develop our understanding of the world. Constructivism takes into consideration the social and cultural impacts on how we learn.
Constructivists think that what a person already knows has the greatest effect on how they learn new knowledge. This indicates that new information can only be contributed to and comprehended in the context of previous knowledge.
The work of psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who introduced concepts such as the zone of proximal development and instructional scaffolding, has strongly affected this viewpoint.
This viewpoint stresses how a person’s own life experiences shape how they comprehend new information.
This technique is comparable to constructivist and cognitive views in that it considers the learner’s experiences, thoughts, and feelings.
This strategy helps someone to discover personal significance in what they learn rather of feeling as though the material is irrelevant to them.
Educational Psychology Topics
Educational psychologists probe deeply to better understand the learning process, from the resources used by instructors to the specific requirements of pupils. Among the educational psychology themes of research are:
- Educational technology: Examining how various sorts of technology might assist pupils in learning.
- Instructional design: Creating excellent educational materials
- Special education: Special education is the assistance provided to pupils who may require specific teaching.
- Curriculum Development: Developing curriculum that will optimize learning
- Organizational Learning: Organizational learning is the study of how individuals learn in organizations, such as workplaces.
- Gifted learners: Assisting students that have been designated as gifted.
History of Educational Psychology
Educational psychology is a relatively young subfield that has experienced a tremendous amount of growth. Psychology did not emerge as a separate science until the late 1800s, so earlier interest in educational psychology was largely fueled by educational philosophers.
Herbart thought that a student’s interest in a subject had a significant impact on the learning outcome. He argued that teachers should consider this while deciding on the best style of instruction.
William James, a psychologist and philosopher, later made substantial contributions to the discipline. His groundbreaking 1899 work, “Talks to Teachers on Psychology,” is widely regarded as the first textbook on educational psychology.
Around the same time, Alfred Binet, a French psychologist, was inventing his famous IQ tests. The exams were initially intended to assist the French government in identifying children with developmental delays and developing special education programs.
John Dewey had a huge impact on education in the United States. Dewey’s ideals were progressive; he felt that schools should prioritize students above topics. He promoted active learning, saying that hands-on experience was essential to the process.
Recently, educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom created an essential taxonomy for categorizing and describing various educational aims. He defined three top-level domains: cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor learning objectives.
A number of other individuals have contributed significantly to the advancement of educational psychology throughout history. Among these well-known persons are:
- John Locke: Locke is an English philosopher who proposed the notion of tabula rasa, or the idea that the mind at birth is basically a blank slate. 16 This signifies that knowledge is gained via experience and education.
- Jean Piaget: Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist best known for his very important theory of cognitive development. His effect on educational psychology is still felt today.
- B.F. Skinner: Skinner was an American psychologist who pioneered the notion of operant conditioning, which has influenced behaviorist thinking.
17 His study on reward and punishment is still influential in education.
Careers in Educational Psychology
Educational psychologists collaborate with educators, administrators, instructors, and students to determine the best ways to assist people learn. This frequently entails identifying kids who may want further assistance, establishing programs for children who are struggling, and even developing novel learning techniques.
Many educational psychologists work directly with schools. Some are instructors or professors, while others collaborate with teachers to test innovative teaching methods and build new course curricula. An educational psychologist may even become a counselor, personally assisting pupils in overcoming learning obstacles.
Others in educational psychology conduct research. For example, they may work for a government body like the United States Department of Education, influencing choices regarding the best methods for children to learn in schools across the country.
An educational psychologist may also work in school or university management. In all of these jobs, they have the ability to impact educational approaches and assist students in learning in the most effective way for them.
A bachelor’s and master’s degree are often necessary for professions in this sector; however, if you wish to work at a university or in school administration, you may also need to finish a doctorate.
Psychology of Teaching and Learning
The psychology of teaching and learning assists us in comprehending the social, emotional, and cognitive processes that comprise learning across the lifetime.
What are the four forms of learning in psychology?
Scientists and psychologists have created a variety of models to better understand how people learn best. The VARK model, a popular theory, defines four major categories of learners:
- Reading/writing, and
Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching
Education psychology for learning and Teaching investigate how individuals learn and retain information. They use psychological research to increase learning and encourage academic success for all pupils.
The educational system of today is quite complicated. There is no single strategy to learning that works for everyone.
That is why educational psychologists are focused on finding and researching learning processes in order to better understand how people acquire and retain new information.
Educational psychologists use human development theories to analyze individual learning and to inform the teaching process. While connection with teachers and children in school settings is crucial, it is not the sole aspect of their employment. Learning is an ongoing process. People learn not just at school, but also at work, in social interactions, and even when performing ordinary duties like as domestic chores or running errands. Psychologists in this domain study how individuals learn in a range of circumstances in order to discover techniques and tactics for improving learning effectiveness.
Educational and Developmental Psychology
Educational and developmental psychology study the social, emotional, and cognitive processes involved in learning and use their findings to improve the learning process. Some focus on the educational development of a certain population, such as children, adolescents, or adults, while others focus on specific learning issues, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or dyslexia.
These experts are interested in teaching methods, the instructional process, and various learning outcomes regardless of the demographic they are investigating.
Educational and developmental psychology study how individuals grow and learn throughout the course of their lives.
They work with people, families, communities, and organizations in a variety of contexts and hold a variety of positions such as school psychologist, guidance officer, and child and adolescent counsellor. They provide psychological and educational examinations as well as instructional planning for gifted children, adolescents, and adults.
Masters in Educational Psychology
Masters in educational psychology is suitable for recent college graduates or anybody interested in transitioning to a full-time master’s program focused on preparation for ongoing advanced learning. The coursework itself may be completed in 18 months. Because the program includes a master’s thesis, the length of time required to finish the program may vary.
A master’s degree in educational psychology can help you enhance your profession and prepare for doctorate study. It’s also an excellent next step in your career if you have a degree in education, psychology, or another discipline involving human development and learning. If you want to undertake research in educational psychology or a similar topic, this program can help you obtain a head start in the PhD pool.
Where to Apply for Masters In educational Psychology?
You can apply to be a master holder in educational psychology below:
Monash University, Australia: Click Here to Apply
Ball State University, Indiana: Click Here to Apply